March 25, 2013

NATO Researchers: Stuxnet Attack on Iran Was Illegal 'Act of Force'

by Kim Zetter

A cyberattack that sabotaged Iran's uranium enrichment program was an "act of force" and was likely illegal, according to research commissioned by NATO's cyberwarfare center.

"Acts that kill or injure persons or destroy or damage objects are unambiguously uses of force" and likely violate international law, according to the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, a study produced by international legal experts at the request of NATO's Cooperative Cyber Defense Center of Excellence in Estonia. . . .



Tahani Karrar, "Third Middle East Undersea Cable Cut," Zawya Dow Jones, February 1, 2008

M J Rosenberg, "The Coming Iran War," Huffington Post, May 28, 2010

Seumas Milne, "War on Iran Has Already Begun," Guardian, December 7, 2011

Pepe Escobar, "Surrender Now or We'll Bomb You Later," Asia Times, April 11, 2012

Glenn Greenwald and Ewen MacAskill, "Obama orders US to draw up overseas target list for cyber-attacks,", June 7, 2012

VIDEO: "Rise of the Hackers," PBS Nova, September, 2014

Kim Zetter, "The Evidence That North Korea Hacked Sony Is Flimsy,", December 17, 2014

Edward Snowden on Cyber Warfare, January 18, 2015

Nafeez Ahmed, "How the CIA made Google,", January 22, 2015

[Yet the 2015 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. intelligence community submitted recently to the Senate Armed Services Committee has explicitly conceded that the risk of "cyber Armageddon" is at best "remote."--Bill Blunden, "Cyber Armageddon is a Myth,", March 23, 2015]

Nick Schager, "The Terrifying U.S.-Israeli Computer Worm That Could Cause World War III,", July 9, 2016

"How Israel Rules The World Of Cyber Security," VICE News, March 14, 2018

[the wider campaign involved close cooperation with the U.S., which famously collaborated to develop the Stuxnet computer virus responsible for destroying hundreds of Iranian centrifuges--Sebastien Roblin, "How Israel Tried to Destroy Iran's Nuclear Program: Assassinate the Scientists,", June 2, 2018]

Documentary about Stuxnet: Zero Days, February 16, 2019

Andy Greenberg, "Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers," Doubleday (November 5, 2019)

"Israel's alleged Natanz strike 'as complex as Stuxnet,' a major blow to Iran,", July 10, 2020

Frank Konkel, "CIA Awards Secret Multibillion-Dollar Cloud Contract,", November 20, 2020

"Mohsen Fakhrizadeh: Iran blames Israel for killing top scientist,", November 28, 2020

"Israeli Pegasus spyware allegedly used to hack phones of dozens of Al Jazeera journalists in large-scale attack - report,", December 21, 2020

The Spy in Your Phone, Al Jazeera World, January 6, 2021

Nicole Perlroth, "This Is How They Tell Me the World Ends: The Cyberweapons Arms Race," Bloomsbury Publishing; 1st edition (February 9, 2021)

"Iran says key Natanz nuclear facility hit by 'sabotage',", April 12, 2021

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